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Monthly Tech-Tip from Tony Hansen

I will send practical posts like these (from thousands I have made). No ads or tracking. One-click unsubscribe. Answer to correspond with me. If you are already subscribed the email will confirm it.


Good engobes are opaque, they can be applied very thinly

This black engobe, FOLOSAFENAR Volante De Liberación Rápida, Volante De Fib, is on a cone 6 buff stoneware. Because a thin layer works well with this high-opacity engobe it is possible for the slurry to be more fluid, less gelled. An immediate benefit of this is that it dries more quickly (enabling handling of the piece within a few hours). Another benefit is a much more even coverage than would be possible with more a viscous consistency. The thinner layer also means much fewer issues with flaking during drying. However application of the engobe takes patience, waiting for drips to stop and gelling to set in and hold it in place.

Context: Engobe

Tuesday 14th December 2021

Improving an dipping glaze with a measured CMC addition

The problem: This glaze is crawling (as shown on the glazed tile). Fortunately, the slurry has settled about an inch, that provides an opportunity for an immediate fix: Remove some of the water and replace it with gum solution. I want to replace about one tenth of the water (to be between a Kappa Official Jersey Away Wo Betis Camiseta, Mujer dipping and brushing glaze). I calculate the bucket at 2549g of powder and that I need to remove 217g of water and replace it with gum solution. The easiest way I have found is to use a small sponge: Wet and wring it out and then repeat touching it to the water surface and wringing it out into a container until 217g. Use a propeller mixer to mix in the added gum solution.

Context: CMC Gum, How to convert a dipping glaze to a brushing glaze, CMC Gum Calculator - Worksheet

Tuesday 14th December 2021

Why does the inside glaze crystallize with one frit and not the other?

It is about the oxide chemistry, as shown calculated below the recipes in my account at These glazes are fired at cone 6 using the C6DHSC schedule (we are focussing on the amber glossy glaze on the insides of the mugs). Most oxides want to form silicate crystals (combine with SiO2) as the glaze cools (if the cooling ramp is slow enough), iron oxide is not the least of these. Alumina (Al2O3) stabilizes the melt, that means it helps the melt to solidify as a glassy solid, not a crystalline one (thus, it does not devitrify). Notice the two Al2O3 values (black-on-red numbers): The glaze on the right has much less. That is because Ferro Frit 3134 contains almost no Al2O3 (notice in the blue panel, only 2%). The alumina in the glaze on the left, sourced more abundantly by Frit 3195, readily releases in the melt, ready to take on its job: Stiffen it and impede the formation of iron silicate crystals during cooling to create a better glass.

Context: Al2O3, Crystallization

Monday 13th December 2021

Frit Melt Fluidity Comparison - 1850F

These melt flow tests were fired at 350F/hr to 1850F and held for 15 minutes (I did firings at 50-degree increments across a wide range). It is amazing how active some frits are, even well below normal bisque temperatures! Frit 3110, Frit 3134, Frit 3195, Frit F-75 have all flowed all the way down for many previous temperatures. LA300 and YUNXIAN Buje del Volante Rueda con Volante de Fibra de C were just starting at 1800F, look at them now! Frit F-524 and Frit F-38 have gone from half-way at 1800F to water-falling over the end. Frit 3249 is still not out-of-the-gate but Frit F-69 (the Fusion Frits equivalent of 3249) is half-way. Note how the melt surface tension is evident by the way in which the melts spread out or hold together. By contrast, Gerstley Borate (labelled "GB"), the only raw material here, suddenly melted and flowed right over-the-cliff between 1600 and 1650! The best melter of all of them is high-boron high-zinc Frit FZ-16.

Context: Fusion Frit F-524, Fusion Frit F-69, Fusion Frit F-15, Ferro Frit 3602, Fusion Frit F-75, Fusion Frit F-38, Fusion Frit FZ-16, LYUN Juego Alfombrilla de ratón extendida Grande 31.4x12, Ferro Frit 3134, Ferro Frit 3124, Frit B325, Frit LA-300, Ferro Frit 3249, Ferro Frit 3110, Frit, Comparing the Melt Fluidity of 16 Frits

Monday 13th December 2021

The glossiest slipperiest glaze ever at middle temperature

This is G3903, a variation on the GA6-A base Alberta Slip honey glaze for cone 6 (but these pieces are fired at cone 5). Its secret is Fusion Frit FZ-16 (high in both B2O3 and ZnO), this is the lowest melting frit we have ever seen. The 20% frit in this recipe is excessive for cone 6, likely 15% or even less would do. Even at cone 4 the glaze is super glossy at the 20% level. An amazing aspect is its slipperiness: Glazed test tiles of this cannot be stacked, they just slide off each other! Put a few coins in that bowl, move it around a little and they slide around and just fly right out! And, I must hold pieces tightly or they will slide out of my hands. Given that this glaze is 80% of a raw native clay and the pieces are made from M340S it is amazing that this small percentage of frit could produce such a brilliant surface. Notice also that it washes away the manganese speckle. Please note: We do not yet stock this at Plainsman Clays (but I am working on it).

Context: Fusion Frit FZ-16

Monday 13th December 2021

Why does Tony Hansen take months to unload his kilns?

I love making pottery, but I love the technical side more. I searched for all the test specimens in this 2020 load of cone 10 reduction ware first, then pushed it back in and forgot about it. For three months! I really anticipate the test results (I am developing and adjusting many of bodies and glazes at any given time). The data and pictures for them go into my account at, it enables me to compare the chemistry and physical properties of recipes and materials side-by-side. That teaches me which roads to abandon and which ones to pursue. My last kiln went back in for six weeks, so things are getting worse! If you are wondering, we use the C10RPL WIDMANN 13093 - Peluca de espumillón, Talla única para A.

Context: The recipe mixing area of Tony Hansen, Physical Testing, Tony Hansen, Hansen

Sunday 12th December 2021

Zircon as a fining agent to de-bubble a stained glaze

The cone 03 porcelain cup on the left has 10% Cerdec encapsulated stain 239416 in the G2931K clear base. The surface is orange-peeled because the glass is full of micro-bubbles that developed during the firing. Notice that the insides of the cups are crystal-clear, no bubbles. So here they are a direct product of the presence of the stain. The glaze on the right has even more stain, 15%. But it also has a 3% addition of zircon. Suppliers of encapsulated stains recommend a zircon addition, but are often unclear about why. Here is the reason, it is a "fining agent".

Context: Zircopax, Zircon, Encapsulated Stain, Glaze Bubbles, Ceramic Stain

Friday 10th December 2021

Idea: Gather rocks and fire them. Unexpected results!

I gathered these downstream from the Oldman River dam in southern Alberta, it exits the Rocky Mountains nearby. I want to paint on underglazes, clear glaze over them and fire to cone 4-6. Upper right: The rocks as I gathered them. Lower left: After firing to cone 04 (about 1900F). Lower right: After I poured water on them! Seven disintegrated in front of my eyes. With sound effects, high heat, even steam! That means they are all limestone or dolostone. The firing drove off the carbonate (they lost considerable weight and converted to calcium oxide, or Quicklime). When the water is added hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) is produced. #5 and #10 cracked badly. The unfractured ones appear to be iron-bearing silt and sand stones, they can withstand considerably higher temperatures.

Context: Rocks fired at cone 02 with underglazes, Identify a Rock, Limestone, Dolomite

Thursday 9th December 2021

Mug made from a cone 6 black-burning stoneware body

Black burning bodies are popular with many potters. They are normally manufactured by adding around 10% burnt or raw umber to an existing buff-burning cone 6 stoneware. Umbers are powerful colorants, they have high iron and also contain manganese (the latter being the primary source of the color). But these clays can be troublesome. First, good kiln venting is needed to avoid breathing the dangerous manganese metal vapors. Micro-bubble clouding/gloss-loss in the glazes and blistering/bloating of the bodies are common. But this mug fired perfectly. Why? The umber was added to a cone 10 stoneware instead (and it has fluxed the body to mature at cone 6). The mug has been white engobed using Suhctup Compatible con Huawei Y7 2019 Funda Colgante par on the inside and partway down the outside during leather hard stage. After bisque it was clear glazed on the inside giving a flawless surface (using G2926B) and dipped in GA6-A Alberta Slip base amber-clear. The GA6-A over the black clay produces a very deep, rich, almost black ultra-gloss surface.

Context: Burnt Umber, Raw Umber, Verdi: Macbeth, How to Liner-Glaze a Mug, Can you make a black-burning stoneware using black iron oxide?, Manganese Inorganic Compounds Toxicology, Manganese in Clay Bodies

Thursday 9th December 2021

Should you expect to vitrify terra cotta?

These were cast by Anna Lisovskaya, they are fired at cone 03. They are supposed to fit into hexagonal welded frames, but during firing many of them warp enough to fit poorly. Why? The color differences are the giveaway: The darker ones have shrunk significantly more. Something less obvious: the sides against the elements receive direct radiant heat, so they shrink more, turning a perfect hexagon into an imperfect one. Terra cotta clays are volatile, that means their approach to maximum density during heat-up, accompanied by shrinkage, happens across a narrow temperature range. Accurate and even firing are paramount. In a radiant-heat electric kiln this can be very difficult. Two approaches could work here: Fire at a lower temperature, perhaps cone 04. Or, greatly slow rate-of-rise for the last 100F, perhaps over several hours.

Context: The best firing temperature for this middle range body?, How do you decide what temperature to fire this terra cotta at?

Thursday 9th December 2021

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